Important definitions 

Cross-border sales: the percentage of domestic and cross-border e-commerce in a country.

Ease of Doing Business Index: The higher a country’s ranking in the World Bank Group’s Ease of Doing Business Index, the more business-friendly local regulations are when establishing a presence there.

E-commerce turnover is defined by the Global Online Measurement Standard for B2C E-Commerce. Accordingly, business-to-consumer e-commerce turnover includes all online transactions between businesses and consumers on desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and other devices both offline and online. B2C e-commerce turnover includes value-added tax or other sales taxes, delivery costs and apps, but excludes returns.

eGDP: the proportion of goods and services bought online in comparison to GDP. The rankings stated come from e-commerce association Ecommerce Europe.

Fraud rate: the percentage of total sales lost because of fraud each year.

Logistics Performance Index: The World Bank’s benchmarking tool Logistics Performance Index is a measure of a country’s logistical friendliness with around 160 countries ranked on their trade logistics performance.

Mobile adoption: smartphone use as a percentage of the total population.

M-commerce: the ability to conduct commerce using a mobile device, for example mobile phone, smartphone, tablet or other mobile equipment.

Manual order review rate: the percentage of e-commerce transactions manually reviewed by retailers.

Explanatory notes

Issuer landscape: the percentage of traditional 3D Secure and risk-based authentication programs by market.

Market demographics: the local population over 15 years of age and the corresponding percentage of internet users and online shoppers.

Relevant payment methods

The term ‘cards’ includes both credit and debit cards. The number of consumers using a payment method is indicated by blue dots (one blue dot is equal to 10%).

‘Trend’ points to the future popularity of a payment method, whereas ‘risk’ indicates the level of threat associated with a payment method. Arvato uses the following symbols to give its assessment: